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Afghanistan August 2021: Talibanan erobern zwei Provinzstädte, weitere in Helmand, Kunduz, Takhar + Badakhshan hart unter Druck. Laufend aktualisierte Meldungen zur Sicherheitslage (25.7.-7.8.21) und jüngster SIGAR-Report an den US-Congress

Veröffentlicht von: Nachtwei am 4. August 2021 10:23:44 +02:00 (50156 Aufrufe)

Heftige Kämpfe toben seit etlichen Tagen in den Provinzstädten Herat im Westen (mit über 500.000 Einwohnern zweitgrößte Stadt des Landes) und Lashkar Gah (über 200.000 Einwohner) in der Hauptopiumprovinz Helmand zwischen den angreifenden Taliban und Regierungskräften. Zwei Provinzhauptstädte fielen am 6. und 7.8.. Der Quartalsbericht des US Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction SIGAR verdeutlicht, dass die stärksten Teile der afghanischen Streitkäfte Afghan Air Force, Special Security Forces) auch besonders von der US-Unterstützung, insbesondere bei der Instandhaltung durch Contractors, abhängig waren. Nur mit einer dünnen "over-the-horizon"-Unterstützung werden sie kaum länger als wenige Monate durchhalten können. 


Taliban nehmen zwei Provinzstädte, weitere in Helmand, Kunduz, Takhar, Badakhshan hart unter Druck. Laufend aktualisierte Meldungen zur Konfliktlage (25.07.-07.08.2021) und jüngster (52.) SIGAR-Quartalsbericht

Winfried Nachtwei

Vorbemerkung: Die Informationsquellen zur Lage in Afghanistan werden spärlicher, der Propagandaanteil nimmt zu. Die folgende Zusammenstellung kann deshalb nur grobe Einblicke in die Lageentwicklung geben. Ich empfinde sie als extrem alarmierend!

Zur Lage Juli

Zur Lage Juni

Zur Lage April

Zur Lage Feb / März

Zur Lage Jan / Feb

TOLOnews 07.08., „Biden Orders B-52 Bombers to Target Advancing Taliban: Report.  

US President Joe Biden has ordered B-52 bombers and Spectre gunships to target Taliban positions in Afghanistan who are advancing towards key cities, MailOnline reported on Saturday as embattled Afghan security forces are fighting the resurgent group in various parts of the country.

These bombers are being supported by the AC-130 Spectre gunships which are armed with a 25mm Gatling gun, a 40mm Bofors cannon and a 105mm M102 cannon, which can provide pinpoint accurate fire from the air, the report said.

Afghan security forces and the Taliban are engaged in fierce fighting in the capital cities of Kunduz, Takhar and Badakhshan provinces in the north of Afghanistan. (…)

Taliban Captures 2nd Provincial Capital in Two Days

The strategic city of Sheberghan, the capital of Jawzjan province in northern Afghanistan, fell to the Taliban after one week of clashes, sources confirmed.

Sources said that security forces are stationed only at the provincial airport in Khwaja Dako district, which is the hometown of former vice president Marshal Abdul Rashid Dostum and is located 17 kilometers from the city of Sheberghan.

Sheberghan is the second provincial capital to fall to the Taliban in the last two days.

Jawzjan lawmakers blamed the government for inattention to the security situation in Jawzjan and said it has remained indifferent to this matter. (…)“  

TN 06-08., „Heavy Battles Continue in Sheberghan for 2nd Day. Heavy fighting continued in the city of Sheberghan, the capital of northern Jawzjan province, for the second day with Taliban taking over some key areas, including the provincial prison.

Taliban released a video on Saturday morning showing prisoners escaping Jawzjan prison.

Some key areas in the city remain contested for the last 24 hours. Taliban took over the provincial governor’s compound on Friday, but it was retaken by Afghan forces. However, source said that Taliban recaptured the provincial governor’s compound, the municipality building and the Jawzjan prison. Sources said fighting has intensified in Panjsad Family in District 1 of Jawzjan city where Dostum’s house is also located.

The security forces are supported by public forces loyal to Junbish-e-Milli or the National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan led by former vice president Abdul Rashid Dostum.

 At least 150 members of the public uprising forces loyal to Junbish and led by Commander Ali Sarwar have newly arrived in Sheberghan to help other forces on the ground, a senior member of Junbish-e-Milli, Sayed Shamsuddin Sadat, said.

Dostum’s son Yar Mohammad Dostum is leading the public uprising forces in their fight against the Taliban in Sheberghan. (…)“

Long War Journal 06.08., Taliban takes full control of Nimruz province, seizes capital

By Bill Roggio | The Taliban took control of Zaranj, the capital of Nimruz province, without a fight. The western locale is the first provincial capital to fall under Taliban control since it launched its offensive across the country in May.

Jihadists and other independent sources on social media have posted videos of Taliban fighters patrolling Zaranj. The images also show them in control of the military base, as well as Zaranj Airport. Taliban fighters were photographed outside the governor’s compound and the headquarters of the National Directorate of Security, Afghanistan’s intelligence agency. Prisoners are streaming out of the local prison.

Some of these images were produced by Taliban spokesman Qari Yousaf Ahmadi, but additional sources confirm the fall of Zaranj.

The Taliban takeover of Zaranj is a major victory for the group, which is also battling for control of multiple other provincial capitals. Government forces are currently clinging to a cluster of buildings in the center of Lashkar Gah, the capital of Helmand, as the Taliban controls the rest of the city. The Taliban is in control of neighborhoods in Kandahar and Herat cities, and is launching frequent assaults in other capitals, such as Taluqan, Kunduz City, Ghazni City, Mitharlam, and Shiberghan.

Zaranj, which is on the border with Iran, is a major trade route and was a source of customs income for the Afghan government. The Taliban now operates four of the six major border crossings, and is collecting millions of dollars in revenue daily. (…)

TN 06.08., „Head of Govt’s Media, Information Center Assassinated.

Dawa Khan Menapal, head of the Afghan government’s media and information center, was killed in an attack by unknown gunmen in Kabul on Friday, sources confirmed.

The incident happened at Darul Aman Road in the west of Kabul on Friday afternoon, sources said.

“He was shot in a brutal way on his face, head, and stomach. He was in critical condition. His driver is also in bad condition,” said Mirwais, an eyewitness. (…)

“Attack on civilian employees of the government, cultural activists and media workers is a violation of the armed conflict law and a clear act of war crimes,” said Zabihullah Farhang, spokesman to Afghan Human Rights Commission.

Before his job as head of the media and information center, he worked as deputy presidential spokesman from 2016 to 2020. (…)

Thoma Ruttig 06.08., „Weitere Eskalation in Afghanistan: Taleban nahmen erste Provinzhauptstadt ein,

TN 06.08., „Taliban Captures Capital of Nimroz Province. Taliban on Friday captured the city of Zaranj, the capital of Nimroz province on the border with Iran as the first provincial capital to be seized by the group since the Biden administration said it would completely withdraw US troops from the country.

Taliban attacked the provincial capital on Thursday night. Their attacks were followed by hundreds of residents of the city, flocking towards the border with Iran, in a desperate search for safety.

There are also reports that government assets were looted in different parts of the city.

Reports say that the Taliban after capturing Kanak district in Nimroz brutally executed at least 30 soldiers. But the Taliban have rejected the allegations, saying the soldiers were killed during clashes. (…)

TN 06.08., „Helmand, Jawzjan Capitals Face Heavy Fighting in 24 Hours. In a shift of their attention from rural areas to capital cities, the Taliban conducted heavy attacks on the centers of Lashkargah city in Helmand and Sheberghan city in Jawzjan province in the last 24 hours, entering some key government facilities.

In Jawzjan, the group made some progress until Friday afternoon, but soon they were pushed back from the city.

The Defense Ministry in a statement late on Friday evening said the center of Sheberghan city was retaken by Afghan troops -- who were supported by Air Force and the local forces loyal to former vice president Abdul Rashid Dostum.

Jawzjan lawmakers said that heavy fighting was underway near the police headquarters, the office of the intelligence agency, the National Directorate of Security (NDS), and the governor’s office in Sheberghan. (…)

“The soldiers who fought for three or four months in Jawzjan were killed or wounded today. For God's sake, when you will address the issue of Sheberghan?” said MP Halima Sadaf Rahimi.

In Helmand, meanwhile, fighting continues in Lashkargah city’s District 1. Videos on social media show shops have caught fire in the ongoing clashes between government forces and the Taliban. (…)

TN 05.08., Cries of 'Allahu Akbar' in Support of ANDSF Spread Across Nation

Like millions of people across Kabul, Afghans in other provinces on Wednesday night chanted the slogan "Allahu Akbar" (God is the greatest), in a show of support for Afghan forces fighting the Taliban. The rallying cry began earlier in Herat city and has been reported in other areas across the nation as well.

In the latest waves of support, Afghans in Kapisa, Baghlan, Nuristan and Sar-e-Pul provinces chanted the slogan to show support for the Afghan forces.

A number of religious scholars said that chanting the slogan "Allahu Akbar" is very important to separate the evil from the truth and that the slogan will help boost the morale of the ANDSF in their campaign against the militants.

“The people of Balkhab are always ready, they will act against all aggressors including the Taliban,” said a resident in Sar-e-Pul province.

“We will defend the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Constitution,” said a resident in Samangan. (…)

TN 05.08., Marshal Dostum Calls For Leaders to Unite, Defend Country

Marshal Abdul Rashid Dostum on Thursday called on Afghan political leaders to sideline their personal interests and unite for the defense of the country.

Dostum said that the current crisis gripping the country is a major conspiracy, and that political leaders of the country will thwart all of the conspiracies of the enemies.

“This conspiracy is not a small conspiracy, we can’t stop it through symbolic and small efforts, we need to make a major decision together with our political friends and our generals,” said Dostum.

“We met with the military elders and the youth, there is war in Kandahar and the situation remains complex, we will talk about this issue to see what we can do—we need to encourage everyone and provide them with the morale to resist against the enemies and the slaves,” said Tadin Khan, the former police chief of Kandahar. (…)“ 

TAZ 05.08., „Vormarsch der Taliban in Afghanistan: Unheilvolle Vorahnung

In den meisten eroberten Gebieten Afghanistans geben sich die Taliban bislang weniger extrem als befürchtet. Vor allem Frauen sind aber auf der Hut.  (Zum jüngsten Anschlag in Kabul und den Kämpfen in Lashkar Gah, Kandahar)

In den meisten eroberten Gebieten zeigen sich die Taliban laut Beobachtern erstaunlich „weich“. Sie beschränkten sich – jedenfalls bisher – darauf, in den Moscheen dazu aufzurufen, dass Männer sich an die islamische Bart- und Kleiderordnung halten und die Menschen „vermeiden“ sollten, fernzusehen und Smartphones zu verwenden. Über Verhaftungen oder Hausdurchsuchungen, um wie zu ihrer Regierungszeit bis 2001 diese Aufrufe auch durchzusetzen, wurde bisher nicht berichtet. Auch Anfragen der taz in mehreren Provinzen ergaben nichts.

Im Distrikt Surmat im Südosten verhinderten die Taliban laut Stammesältesten und Aktivisten, dass die Bevölkerung wie andernorts Verwaltungsgebäude plünderte. Auch Kliniken blieben geöffnet. In mehreren Provinzen forderten sie die Behörden auf, ihre Arbeit wieder aufzunehmen. Dem wurde wegen des Misstrauens den Aufständischen gegenüber nur sporadisch Folge geleistet, besonders unter Frauen.

Ein Stammesältester in der Ostprovinz Laghman sagte der taz, weibliche Angestellte der örtlichen Bildungs- und Gesundheitsverwaltung würden weiter arbeiten und seien auch nicht aufgefordert worden, nur in männlicher Begleitung außer Haus zu gehen. Solche Vorfälle wurden etwa aus den Provinzen Tachar und Dschusdschan gemeldet. (…)!5786681/

Ausführlich „Afghanistan: Krieg und Propagandakrieg (taz 5.8. und aktualisiert)“

 TOLOnews 04.08., „War Displaced 900,000 in Three Months: Watchdog

Findings of the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) released on Wednesday indicated that the ongoing war in the country has displaced 900,000 people in the past three months.

Benafsha Yaqoubi, a member of the AIHRC, said that the figure shows a 74 percent increase compared to the same period last year. (…)

TN 04.08.,„Taliban Killed 'Possibly 800-900 People' in Kandahar: Tadin Khan“ The former police chief of Kandahar and a member of the High Council of the National Reconciliation (HCNR), Tadin Khan, on Wednesday stated that the Taliban "does not believe in human rights," saying the group has killed potentially up to 900 people in Kandahar province in the past month and a half.

Human Rights Watch (HRW) issued a statement saying that Taliban forces that are advancing in Ghazni, Kandahar, and other Afghan provinces have summarily executed detained soldiers, police, and civilians with alleged ties to the Afghan government.

“Summarily executing anyone in custody, whether a civilian or combatant, is a serious violation of the Geneva Conventions and a war crime,” said Patricia Gossman, associate Asia director. “Taliban commanders with oversight over such atrocities are also responsible for war crimes.” The Taliban denied the allegations.

According to Tadin Khan, the Taliban forcefully took these 900 people from their homes and killed them. “They possibly martyred 800 to 900 people in the past month and a half. The people have suffered enormously. The brutality that occurred in Boldak (Spin Boldak district of Kandahar) is unforgivable,” said Tadin Khan.

The HRW statement also said: “Human Rights Watch obtained a list of 44 men from Spin Boldak, Kandahar, whom the Taliban have allegedly killed since July 16. All had registered with the Taliban before being summarily executed. Waheedullah, a police commander from Spin Boldak, had obtained a 'forgiveness' letter from the Taliban, but Taliban fighters took him from his house and executed him on August 2, activists and media monitoring these detentions in Kandahar said."

TN 04.08., „Afghans Rally Behind Troops With Cries of 'Allahu Akbar'“, Millions across Afghanistan’s capital Kabul on Tuesday night chanted the slogan "Allahu Akbar" (God is the greatest), in a show of support for Afghan forces fighting the Taliban. The rallying cry began earlier in Herat city and has been reported in other areas across the nation as well. (…) “This slogan reflects the voice of the Afghan nation, this slogan needs to be raised in support of peace in the country, not for massacres and creating chaos,” said a resident in Kabul.

People in other areas of Afghanistan including Nangarhar, Badakhshan and Takhar provinces also chanted the slogan to announce their support for the security forces.

“We raised the slogan of Allahu Akbar (God is the greatest) in Jalalabad and this slogan will be chanted across Afghanistan, we will support our security forces and will fight together with them in the trenches if needed,” said Raz Mohammad Imranzai, a resident of Jalalabad city.

This outpouring of support for the security forces began on Monday night in the city of Herat, in western Afghanistan, which has seen fierce fighting over the past few weeks and resisted Taliban attacks against Herat city over the past eight days.  

TN 04.08., „Taliban Attacks on Herat City Pushed Back: Officials“ At least seven attacks by Taliban on the city of Herat were pushed back by the security forces on Wednesday night, the provincial governor Abdul Saboor Qani said.

Taliban launched attacks on districts 2, 3, 10 and 11 of Herat city on Wednesday night, Qani said, adding that “Wahid Ahmad Kohistani, police chief for Herat's District 10 and two security force members were killed in last night's clashes.”

There are no reports on civilians’ casualties so far.

Qani said that the Air Force also conducted airstrikes in the city on in which "more than 100 Taliban were killed and dozens of others were wounded." (…) Taliban has not commented on their casualties. On Thursday, Herat clashes entered 9th day. (…)

TN 04.08., „8 Killed, 20 Wounded in Attack on Acting Defense Minister's House

At least eight people, including a woman, were killed and more than 20 others were wounded in a car bomb blast near the residence of Acting Defense Minister Gen. Bismillah Mohammadi on Tuesday night, the Interior Ministry said on Wednesday.

The attack took place at around 8pm local time in Shirpoor area in Kabul's District 10 where most of the high-ranking government officials house are located.

First, a car bomb was donated close to the house of Mohammadi and then four gunmen entered a nearby house and fought against security guards. (…)

Three attackers entered the house of Mohammad Azim Mohseni, an MP from Baghlan shortly after the blast, sources said.

Mohseni confirmed that he was not at home when the attack happened.

“There were four to seven attackers,” security sources said.

A security source said that a security guard of Mohammadi’s house is among those killed, and another was wounded. (…)

TN 03.08., „Afghanistan: 51 Media Outlets Closed Amid FightingThe Ministry of Information and Culture on Tuesday said that 51 media outlets have been closed in the country due to an increase in violence over the last three months.

The ministry said that 16 of the media outlets, including four TV networks, are in Helmand and stopped operating in recent weeks.

“So far, 35 media outlets have stopped their operations, over 6 media outlets have fallen to the Taliban and are being used as a voice for their activities,” said acting Minister of Information and Culture Qasim Wafaeezada.

Data by Nai, an organization supporting open media in Afghanistan, shows that 51 media outlets have been closed across the country since April.

The outlets were operating in Helmand, Kandahar, Badakhshan, Takhar, Baghlan, Samangan, Balkh, Sar-e-Pul, Jawzjan, Faryab, Nuristan and Badghis.

Five TV networks and 44 radio stations, one media center and a news agency are among the outlets that halted their operations.

In this period, over 1,000 reporters and media workers, including 150 women, lost their jobs.  

Two journalists have lost their lives in the last two months. (…)

TN 03.08., „Afghan Citizens Blast Politicians For Not Defending Country“

As fighting rages in various provinces, citizens criticized key Afghan politicians, asking the whereabouts of those influential political and jihadi figures who claimed to be leading major ethnic groups in the country but who are not defending the people and provinces from Taliban attacks.

The war has intensified in Kandahar, Badakhshan, Ghazni, and Faryab provinces, and residents ask: What are the key politicians and jihadi leaders like Salahuddin Rabani, Mohammad Mohaqeq, Karim Khalili, Abdul Rashid Dostum, Hamid Karzai, and Attah Mohammad Noor Helmand doing to fight the Taliban?

Several citizens and MPs say that key politicians have only supported the government for their own benefits and are now hiding in their homes in Kabul, or they have kept silent while they are out of the country.

“They should be ashamed. If I was in their place, instead of these politicians, I would repent. If you ask people about them, they are not happy,” said Ferdaws, a resident of Kabul.

Another Kabul resident Lal Mohammad said: “They are only fighting for power; they don’t think about people. They ruin people.”

Many Afghan citizens have blamed Afghan politicians for not taking part in the defense of the country and have not commented on the public criticism; however, previously they spoke of supporting the Afghan government and defending it from Taliban attacks if the peace process failed. (…)

TN 03.08., „Army: Lashkargah Operations Planned, Residents Urged to EvacuateThe commander of the Army's 215 Maiwand Corps, Gen. Sami Sadat, on Tuesday urged Lashkargah residents to evacuate their houses as the ANDSF is planning large-scale operations to clear the city of Taliban. (…)

The clashes in Lashkargah, capital of the southern province of Helmand, have entered their sixth day.
On Tuesday morning residents of Lashkargah said that heavy fighting that had begun the night before was still ongoing close to the police HQ, the provincial governor's compound, the NDS office and the prison in PD1 of Lashkargah. The residents said that Afghan forces airstrikes also continued in the city.

Karim Atal, a member of the Parliament from Helmand said: “The situation has worsened and fighting continues near the police HQ, governor's office and other parts. The Taliban are using people's homes as shields." (…)

Footage released on social media shows damaged buildings and smoke rising into the sky. 

UNAMA on Tuesday tweeted that at least 10 civilians were killed and 85 more were wounded in Lashkargah’s clashes.

“Civilians are bearing the brunt as fighting enters Afghanistan’s cities,” it said, adding that “the Taliban ground offensive and the Afghan Air Force airstrikes are causing the most harm to civilians.” (…)

“The shops are on fire. Civilian casualties are high, and airstrikes are ongoing,” said Jawid Ahmad, a resident of Lashkargah who fled the city for Kabul on Tuesday. 

Social media footage also shows bodies out in the open in different parts the city.

On Monday the coordinator of the MSF Helmand project Sarah Leahy said: “There has been relentless gunfire, air strikes and mortars in densely populated areas. Houses are being bombed, and many people are suffering severe injuries.” (…),  

TN 03.08., „Heratis March against Taliban, Support Afghan Forces“

Residents united against Taliban marched the streets of the western city of Herat on Monday night, chanting Allahu Akbar, “God is Great,” announcing their support to the government forces and vowed to defend the province.  

They also celebrated the advances of the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces in their fight against the Taliban in southern parts of Herat city. Monday was the sixth day of the fighting in Herat. 

The move was widely welcomed by other Afghans across the country who created a hashtag of “Herat uprising” and “Allahu Akbar,” announcing their support to the Heratis.  

Kabul residents took to social media and asked for a similar act in Kabul on Tuesday night. 

First Vice President Amrullah Saleh also welcomed the move and said it was the day he was waiting for and that he is thrilled by this act. 

Herat governor Gen. Abdul Saboor Qani, who has served in the leadership role of the country’s security agencies, on Tuesday said the security forces in the province have air support. He said that a large-scale military operation has started to clear the province of Taliban. (…)

Long War Journal, 02.08., „Taliban, Afghan forces battle for control of Helmand’s capitalBy Bill Roggio | After days of heavy fighting with Afghan security forces, the Taliban has entered Laskhar Gah, the capital of Helmand province. The city is in danger of falling to the Taliban.

The Taliban is now battling Afghan security forces in the heart of the city. Clashes are occurring close to the police and National Directorate of Security headquarters, the city’s main prison, and the governor’s compound. The Taliban has also taken control of the city’s main radio station, and has begun broadcasting its Voice of Sharia programming.

Taliban fighters have been photographed and filmed in numerous location throughout the city, including main squares, markets and other places.

Flights out of Bost Airport, which is directly south of the city, have been suspended and the Taliban have been firing rockets at the facility. The government still controls the airport, which is a vital lifeline for Afghan security forces as the Taliban controls all of the districts surrounding the city and the roads are highly contested. The security sitiuation in the neighborhood of Karez, which is directly west of Bost Airport, is tenuous.

The U.S. military has resumed airstrikes in Helmand and elsewhere in an attempt to prevent the Taliban from overrunning several major cities. The U.S. Air Force has launched more than a dozen strikes in and around Lashkar Gah, and also in Kandahar City, Herat City, and elsewhere over the past week. The Afghan military has also been launching airstrikes in and around the Lashkar Gah, and has sent reinforcements to attempt to prevent the fall of the city. However the combined U.S. and Afghan airstrikes have so far failed to dislodge the Taliban or halt its advance. (…)

TN 02.08., „Fighting in Helmand's Capital Lashkargah Continues for 5th Day

Clashes between government forces and the Taliban intensified in the city of Lashkargah in southern Helmand province, leaving some streets of the city empty of residents and adding to concerns about rising threats to major capitals.

The frontline was in District 1 where the US conducted an airstrike on Monday morning that left seven Taliban killed, according to the Defense Ministry.

Lawmakers from Helmand said that the prison and the police headquarters are under siege and that clashes in District 1 are focused on capturing the district governor’s compound.

Nine bodies and eight wounded were taken to the Emergency Hospital in Lashkargah on Monday, officials said.

“Fighting is underway in Lashkargah. The security forces are not in a good condition there,” said Mohammad Jami, a civil society activist from Helmand.

“Recently people’s homes were bombarded. The Taliban is hiding in people’s houses and using them as shields,” said Akhtar Mohammad Badi Zai, a civil society activist from Helmand.

The Taliban has taken over 12 districts in Helmand except for Kajaki district and has captured nine out of 10 districts in the city of Lashkargah, security sources said.

Sources said all media broadcasts halted in Helmand as clashes intensified in Lashkargah.

The national TV office in Helmand in Lashkargah's District 1 was taken over by the Taliban on Monday morning, sources said, who also said that employees of the media outlet have not been in the office for the last two days. (…)

TN 02.08., „Clashes Ongoing in Herat City for 6th Day“

Clashes entered the sixth day in the city of Herat on Monday specifically in districts 2, 3, 7 and 14 as well as in the southern parts of Herat’s capital near Injil district.

Herat is the second provincial capital city along with Lashkargah where heavy clashes have been underway for the past few days.

“We have air support and the Taliban’s gatherings have been targeted in various parts of Herat city where they have sustained heavy casualties,” said Herat governor Gen. Abdul Saboor Qani.

A former mujahedeen leader and senior member of the Jamiat-e-Islami party, Mohammad Ismail Khan, who is leading public uprising forces in the fight against the Taliban, asked Heratis to mobilize against the Taliban and assured them that the city will be defended.

“It is an obligation to all men and women in Herat to save themselves from this force of ignorance,” Khan said. “The Taliban has found more arrogance than in the past.” (…)

TN 01.08., „Afghan Watchdog Reports 80% Increase in Civilian Casualties“

The Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission in a report released Sunday said that 1,677 civilians were killed and 3,644 more were wounded in the first six months of this year, showing an 80% increase compared to the same period in 2020.

The watchdog says 1,594 security incidents occurred during this period.

In the first six months of 2020, the watchdog says, 1,213 civilians were killed and 1,744 more were wounded.

The report says that during this period 154 women were killed and 350 more were wounded. These numbers in 2020 were 126 killed and 171 wounded.

According to the report, of those killed, 373 were children. Also, 1,083 of those wounded are children.

The report says the Taliban is responsible for 56% of the casualties (917 killed, and 2,061 injured), pro-government forces for 15% (229 killed, 565 injured), Daesh 7% (104 killed, 239 killed), and unknown perpetrators 22% (425 civilians killed and 765 civilians injured).

In 451 incidents, a total of 1,987 civilians have been harmed by IED blasts, roadside mines, car-bombs, and exploding mines or ordnance. This includes 587 civilians killed, and 1,400 others injured, the report says.

Targeted killing accounts for 30 percent of the total number of civilian casualties in the first six months of 2021, the report says, adding that this includes 1,634 civilian casualties (696 killed, 938 injured). (…)

FAZ 29.07., „Nach dem Abzug der Amerikaner - Eine existentielle Krise für Afghanistan. Die afghanische Armee stemmt sich gegen den Vormarsch der Taliban – ohne amerikanische Unterstützung operiert sie jedoch am Limit. Besondere Probleme bereitet die Luftwaffe“ Von Christian Meier,

SIGAR Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction,30.07.2021, 52. Quartalsbericht an den US-Congess,

Section 1 SIGAR Oversight Activities

Section 2 Reconstruction Update

- Reconstruction in Brief

- Statius of Funds

- Security

- Governance

- Economic and Social Development

Section 3 Other Agencies Oversight

SECURITY (S. 49 ff.)

Das Combined Security Transition Command Afghanisan (CSTC-A) endete offiziell am 12. Juli  und ging über in das Defence Security Cooperation Management Office Afghanistan (DSCMO-A) in Qatar. Anfang Mai hatte Resolute Support seine Train, Advise, Assist Missionen auf der Ebene der ANA Corps und Provinzpolizeichefs sowie seine Beratergruppen in Verteidigungs- und Innenministerium aufgelöst.

Talibanoffensive (S. 51, 53 ff.): Nach dem offiziellen Beginn des internationalen Rückzuges im Mai starteten die Taliban eine Offensive und überrannten zahlreiche ANDSF Checkpoints und Distriktzentren. Am 2. Juli berichtete das Afghanistan Analysts Network, dass die Taliban 127 Distriktzentren (25% von allen) neu unter ihre Kontrolle gebracht hätten. Am 21. Juli erklärte General Milley, das ungefähr die Hälfte aller 419 Distrikte von den Taliban kontrolliert würden und 17 der 34 Provinzhauptstädte unter Talibandruck ständen. . Long War Journal meldete am 15. Juli 221 Distrikte unter Talibankontrolle, eine Verdreifachung gegenüber 73 am 14. April.

Besonders beunruhigend war die Geschwindigkeit, mit der gerade Distrikte in den Nordprovinzen übernommen wurden, die mal Anti-Taliban-Bastionen gewesen waren. 0

Außerdem nahmen die Taliban sechs internationale Grenzübergänge und kontrollieren im Land über weite Strecken der Highways. Damit nahmen sie der Regierung wichtige Zolleinnahmequellen und gewannen eigene Einnahmequellen an Grenzen und Checkpoints. – und damit die enzsprechenden Zolleinnahmen.

US-Streitkräfte und Sicherheitsunterstützung (S. 60): Sicherheitsunterstützung für Afghanistan läuft nun „over-the-horizon“ (OTH) von Qatar über das DSCMO-A. OTA ermögliche keine „Aufsicht über die Schulter“ und mache Face-to-face-Kontakte unmöglich. Aber das setze die schon seit Corona begrenzte Art der Unterstützung fort.

Contractors im Dienste des Pentagon (DOD) gab es Anfang Juni noch 7.795, davon 2.656 US-Bürger, 2.491 Drittstaatler und 2.648 Afghanen. Im vorigen Quartal waren noch 16.832 Contractors im Land, ein Rückgang um 9.037.

Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF): Laut US-Angaben vom 29. April umfassten die ANDSF 300.000 Personen, davon 182.071 dem Verteidigungsministerium unterstellt und 118.628 dem Innenministerium.

Die Attrition-Rate der ANA soll Februar – April bei 3% gelegen haben, bei der ANP bei 3,5%. Die Verlustraten werden seit Jahren nicht mehr veröffentlicht.

Afghan Air Force (S. 71 ff.): Ende Juni verfügte die AAF über 167 Luftfahrzeuge. Nur 15 von 42 Positionen (z.B. Fluglehrer, Kopiloten, Mission System Operators) seien mit qualifiziertem Personal besetzt. Die Einsatzbereitschaft AC-208-Flotte (Aufklärung, Luft-Boden, einmotorig) sank von 93% in April/Mai auf 63% im Juni, der UH-60-Helicopter von 77% auf 39%.

Alle Plattformen seien überfordert durch wachsende Anforderungen für close air support, Aufklärung. Alle Fluggeräte würden die empfohlenen planmäßigen Wartungsintervalle um 25% überschreiten.

Im Januar 2021 stellte Resolute Support fest, dass ohne fortgesetzte Contractor-Unterstützung keines der AAF-Luftfahrzeuge länger als wenige Monate einsatzfähig gehalten werden könnte, abhängig vom Ersatzteilvorrat im Land, der Instandhaltungskapazität für jedes Luftfahrzeug und dem Timing des Contractor-Abzuges. Laut DSCMO-A verfügen drei der sieben AAF-Luftfahrzeugtypen über genügend Instandhalter auf allen drei Zertifizierungsebenen. Die Zahl der Contractors für Luftfahrzeug-Instandhaltung sank von 409 im April auf 101 im Juni.

Ein Teil der Luftfahrzeug-Instandhaltung soll in Golfstaaten ausgelagert werden.

Afghan Special Security Forces (ASSF) (S. 75): Laut Resolute Support weigern sich die meisten Corps, Operationen ohne ASSF-Unterstützung durchzuführen. Vor Ort würden sie missbraucht für Aufgaben konventioneller Kräfte wie route clearance, checkpoint security und quick reaction.

Afghan National Police (ANP) (S. 76 ff.): Laut SIGAR-Bericht vom März verfüge Afghanistan nach zwei Jahrzehnten internationaler Unterstützung zzt. nur über eine kleine Zahl hoch trainierter spezialisierter Polizei, entstanden unter Anleitung internationaler Berater. Zugleich fehle es der afghanischen Regierung an einer Polizei, die legitimiert Rechtsstaatlichkeit im Alltag durchsetzen könne. Die Afghan Uniformed Police (AUP), verantwortlich für zivilpolizeiliche Aufgaben, sei weitgehend analphabetisch und schlecht ausgebildet. Viele AUP-Angehörige gelten als Misshandler, Räuber und korrupt.

Vortragsangebot zu Riga-Deportationen, Ghetto Riga + Dt. Riga-Komitee

Ende 1941/Anfang 1942 rollten Deportationszüge aus Deutschland und Österreich nach Riga.

1989 stieß ich auf die Spuren der verschleppten jüdischen Frauen, Männer und Kinder.

Mit meinem bebilderten Vortrag "Nachbarn von nebenan - verschollen in Riga" stehe ich gern für Erinnerungsveranstaltungen und Schulen zur Verfügung. (Anlage)

Vorstellung der "Toolbox Krisenmanagement"

Von der zivilen Krisenprävention bis zum Peacebuilding: Die 53-seitige Broschüre stellt kompakt und klar auf jeweils einer Themenseite Prinzipien, Akteure und Instrumente des Krisenmanagements vor. Bei einem Kolloquium im Bundestag in Berlin wurde die Schrift einem Fachpublikum vorgestellt. Erstellt von AutorInnen des Zentrums Internationale Friedenseinsätze ZIF und der Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik SWP ist die "Toolbox" ein wichtiger Beitrag zur friedens- und sicherheitspolitischen Grundbildung auf einem Politikfeld, wo die Analphabetenrate in der Gesellschaft, aber auch in Medien und Politik sehr hoch ist. ...

Auf dem Foto überreicht W. Nachtwei den AutorInnen seine 2008 erschienene Broschüre zur Zivilen Krisenprävention und Friedensförderung.

Mehr zur Rolle zivilgesellschaftlicher Akteure bei der zivilen Konfliktbearbeitung u.a.: